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, As for the French fingerprint database, the Fichier automatisé des empreintes digitales (FAED), in October 2018 it included 6.2 million registered individuals and 220,000 traces (cf. Rapport d'information sur les fichiers mis à la disposition des forces de sécurité, i The Traitement d'Antécédents Judiciaires or Judicial History Application (TAJ) is the widest and most commonly used database, 2017.

, iii The law describes 'serious or corresponding evidence' making it 'probable' that the individuals have committed an offence covered under the scope of the FNAEG

C. Iv, Questions to the Government no, p.19, 2010.

, from the Ministry of Justice CRIM-PJ no. 08-28.H5. According to this circular, 'regarding minors over the age of 13, the advisability of taking a sample must be carefully assessed, following consultation between the judicial police and the prosecution service.' vi Personal communication from the forensic science department of the police services. vii Rapport d'information sur les fichiers mis à la disposition des forces de sécurité, Response of 8, 2008.

, As the name suggests, they are short sequences of repeated DNA that experts distinguish by size. xii The practices and discourses of police officers and gendarmes have been analysed in another study, 2018.

, regarding internal security made the refusal to give a DNA sample an offence that carries a maximum penalty of 15,000 euros and a 1 year prison sentence for suspected individuals, to be doubled in the case of convicted individuals. xiv Circulars of 27, 2000.

, xvii This lawyer uses the term 'whistleblowers' for opponents who alert public opinion to what they consider to be a danger or a problem (police use of databases, advertising, GM crops

, xviii While emphasising that this argument was seldom used during our interviews, it should be noted that the larger the database, the more likely comparison errors (false positive matches) between a trace and a suspect are to occur

, to describe people exposed to radiation from Chernobyl, Rose (2007) talks about a 'biological citizenship' encompassing projects that are led by citizens and linked to their biological existence as human beings. Due to the dimension of choice and responsibility of actors expressed by this concept, xix Borrowing the term used by Petryna, 2002.

, and Marper v The United Kingdom case, the court held that the blanket and indiscriminate retention of DNA profiles and the samples of suspected individuals-as was the case in the UK until the ECHR's judgment-was, in the context of state intrusion into the private life of an individual, in contradiction with the need for proportionality between an offence committed and the request for a DNA sample (we recall that the DNA samples of identified individuals, in France, are not retained). Case of S. and Marper v. The United Kingdom, 2008.

. Aume%20uni%20fr, Automatisé des Empreintes Digitales or FAED) in a way which could be transposed to the FNAEG, and this conviction rested on the concept of proportionality and private life in exactly the same terms as those of the Marper judgment. Case of M.K. v France. Judgment of 18, Several organisations, including the SM, the LDH and the SAF, also questioned the Ministry of Justice in this regard in 2013. xxi National DNA database strategy, 2010.

, Fichage génétique: la France toujours dans l'illégalité, xxv Statistics provided by the Ministry of Justice, 2003.

, Although judges apply the law strictly, the rather symbolic nature of some penalties (100 euros) indicates that they may not be entirely at ease with these borderline cases, particularly where the original charge has been dropped but the charge against the DNA refusal pursued, xxvi Incidentally, while there is a high proportion of convictions for refusing to give a sample, sentences are generally light

. Xxviii-since, the numbers of markers studied has been fixed at 21 as per the Decree, vol.10, 2015.

. Xxix-see-note and . Xi, xxx Through a study of the United Kingdom's genetic database, Skinner (2011) reveals a policy centred on the construction and use of racial data, demonstrating the recurrent discussion of the validity and legitimacy of the use of so-called ethnic or racial categories

, xxxi For a study of the sensitivity of this topic and its legal context in France, in regard to other practices involving the police and legal system, see, 2017.

, Jugement de la Cour d'Appel d'Amiens du 13 juin 2014, Arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 10 juin 2015. xxxiii See the judgment Arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 10 juin 2015. xxxiv 'Ils ont refusé de donner leur ADN, The Oversight Committee and the Interministerial Committee responsible for the FNAEG, 2007.