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The Rif and California: Environmental Violence in the Era of New Cannabis Markets

Abstract : This chapter explores the different forms of environmental violence practised against humans and nature (including the cannabis plant) in a context of intensive cannabis cultivation. In particular, it examines the effects of the industrial farming of cannabis since the 1960s on water, land, forests, animals and farmers. It also investigates the exploitation of the labour force, which has comprised vulnerable populations, especially women and landless agricultural workers since Rifian agriculture was first integrated into colonial capitalism in Morocco. While this study focuses on the Moroccan territory, the situation presented is by no means unique at the global level. The phenomenon can be seen developing both within a framework of prohibition and when legal and illegal actors adopt a capitalist system of exploitation, as is the case in California
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Submitted on : Monday, July 12, 2021 - 10:55:55 AM
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Kenza Afsahi. The Rif and California: Environmental Violence in the Era of New Cannabis Markets. Julia Buxton; Mary Chinery-Hesse; Khalid Tinasti (eds.). Drug Policies and Development: Conflict and Coexistence, Brill | Nijhoff, pp.183-205, 2020, International Development Policy, 9789004440494. ⟨10.1163/9789004440494_012⟩. ⟨halshs-03283731⟩



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